Portrait of Ferdinand von Arlt Frontispiece


1. Patagonians 2

2. African Pigmies 3

3. Moros from the Philippines 6

4. Diagram of the hypermetropic, emmetropic and myopic eyeballs 11

5. The eye as a camera 13

6. Mexican Indians 15

7. Ainus, the aboriginal inhabitants of Japan 16

8. The usual method of using the retinoscope 18

9. Diagrams of the images of Purkinje 24

10. Diagram by which Helmholtz illustrated his theory of accommodation 27

11. Portrait of Thomas Young 28

12. Portrait of Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz 31

13. Demonstration upon the eye of a rabbit that the inferior oblique muscle is an essential factor in accommodation 40

14. Demonstration upon the eye of a carp that the superior oblique muscle is essential to accommodation 41

15. Demonstration upon the eye of a rabbit that the production of refractive errors is dependent upon the action of he external muscles 42

16. Demonstration upon the eye of a fish that the production of myopic and hypermetropic refraction is dependent upon the action of the extrinsic muscles 43

17. Production and relief of mixed astigmatism in the eye of a carp 45

18. Demonstration upon the eyeball of a rabbit that the obliques lengthen the visual axis in myopia 46

19. Demonstration upon the eye of a carp that the recti shorten the visual axis in hypermetropia 47

20. Lens pushed out of the axis of vision 48

21. Rabbit with lens removed 49

22. Experiment upon the eye of a cat, demonstrating that the fourth nerve, which supplies only the superior oblique muscle, is just as much a nerve of accommodation as the third, and that the superior oblique muscle which it supplies is a muscle of accommodation 50-51

23. Pithing a fish preparatory to operating upon its eyes 52

24. Arrangements for photographing images reflected from he eyeball 55


xx List of Illustrations

25. Arrangements for holding the head of the subject steady while images were being photographed 56

26. Image of electric filament on the front of the lens. 57

27. Images of the electric filament reflected simultaneously from the cornea and lens 58

28. Image of electric filament upon the cornea 60

29. Image of electric filament on the front of the sclera 62

30. Images on the side of the sclera 63

31. Multiple images upon the front of the lens 64

32. Reflection of the electric filament from the iris 65

33. Demonstrating that the back of the lens does not change during accommodation. 67

34. Straining to see at the near-point produces hypermetropia. 90

35. Myopia produced by unconscious strain to see at the distance is

increased by conscious strain 91

36. Immediate production of myopia and myopic astigmatism in eyes previously normal by strain to see at the distance 92-93

37. Myopic astigmatism comes and goes according as the subject

looks at distant objects with or without strain. . 94

38. Patient who has had the lens of the right eye removed for cataract

produces changes in the refraction of this eye by strain 96-97

39. A family group strikingly illustrating the effect of the mind upon the

vision 99

40. Myopes who never went to school, or read in the Subway 100

41. One of the many thousands of patients cured of errors of refraction

by the methods presented in this book 104

42. Palming 125

43. Patient with atrophy of the optic nerve gets flashes of improved

vision after palming 127

44. Paralysis of the seventh nerve cured by palming 131

45. Glaucoma cured by palming 133

46. Woman with normal vision looking directly at the sun 187

47. Woman aged 37-child aged 4, both looking directly at the sun

without discomfort 189

48. Focussing the rays of the sun upon the eye of a patientby means

of a burning glass 191

49. Specimen of diamond type 195

50. Photographic type reduction 195

51. Operating without anaesthetics 204

52. Neuralgia relieved by palming and the memory of black 207

53. Voluntary production of squint by strain to see 223

54. Case of divergent vertical squint cured by eye education 230

55. Temporary cure of squint by memory of a black period. 232

56. Face-rest designed by Kallmann, a German optician 254